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Volume 6, Issue 1, February Issue - 2018, Pages:1-31


Authors: Kuldeep Dhama*, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Sandip Chakraborty, Jay Prakash Yadav, Deepak Kumar, Shyma K Latheef, Mani Saminathan,Y. S. Malik*, Hafiz M.N. Iqbal
Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) has attracted global attention after its first large-scale outbreak in Pacific, Micronesian island of Yap (Year 2007). The virus spreads rapidly and owes increased virulence than the ZIKV which appeared nearly six decades ago, where it was associated with sporadic cases and mild illness. The World Health Organization declared ZIKA as a ‘Public Health Emergency of International Concern” due to severe illness and associated several complications such as neurological disorders, autoimmune disorder, fetal anomalies, impaired central nervous system (CNS) of the fetus, microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barre´Syndrome (GBS). Recently, this virus has posed a pandemic threat to global human population. The virus is transmitted primarily by a mosquito (Aedes aegypti), whereas, other routes of viral transmission includes monkey bite, coitus and body fluids such as blood, semen, and saliva which needs further confirmaton. Furthermore, implementation of appropriate mechanical, chemical and biological control methodologies can help to avoid mosquito bites and ultimately limit the viral spread. Another potential approach could be the development of ZIKV resistant mosquito strains such as Wolbachia-harboring mosquitoes which can reduce the incidences of ZIKV by lowering the availability of vectors for virus transmission. In-use ZIKV diagnosis relies on serological, molecular and few other advanced detection methods. Nowadays, worldwide researchers and biomedical and pharmaceutical authorities are paying attention on designing and developing effective vaccines, drugs, medicines, and therapeutics to counter this virus. The reasons behind the shift of virus virulence need to be explored by understanding the genetic and molecular characteristics, host-pathogen interactions and immunobiology of the virus, which would help to design effective antiviral drugs, prophylactics, and vaccines. The present review highlights various aspects of ZIKV and its clinical manifestations, progress, and advances in developing effective diagnostics, vaccines and drugs/therapeutics along with adopting suitable prevention and control strategies to tackle this deadly emerging disease. 
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